Paris Agreement China and India

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The Paris Agreement: The Role of China and India

The Paris Agreement is an international agreement aimed at combating climate change and limiting global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The agreement was adopted in December 2015 by 196 parties, including the United States, China, and India.

China and India are two of the world`s largest emitters of greenhouse gases, accounting for nearly 40% of global emissions. As such, their participation in the Paris Agreement is crucial to its success.

China`s Role in the Paris Agreement

China has made significant progress in reducing its carbon emissions in recent years. In 2019, China accounted for 28% of global carbon dioxide emissions, down from 29% in 2018. This reduction was primarily due to the country`s shift away from coal-fired power plants and towards renewable energy sources.

Under the Paris Agreement, China has pledged to peak its carbon emissions by 2030 and to increase the share of non-fossil fuels in its primary energy consumption to around 20% by 2030. To achieve these goals, China has implemented various policies aimed at promoting clean energy, such as subsidies for renewable energy, a nationwide carbon trading scheme, and stricter emissions standards for vehicles.

India`s Role in the Paris Agreement

India is also making strides in reducing its carbon emissions. In 2019, India`s emissions accounted for 7% of the global total, down from 8% in 2018. Like China, India is focusing on expanding its renewable energy capacity to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels.

Under the Paris Agreement, India has pledged to reduce its emissions intensity (the amount of emissions per unit of GDP) by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030. The country aims to achieve this goal through a mix of policies, such as promoting renewable energy, increasing energy efficiency, and reducing emissions from the industrial sector.

Challenges Ahead

Despite their progress, China and India still face significant challenges in meeting their climate targets. For example, China`s rapid economic growth and heavy reliance on coal make it difficult to transition to cleaner energy sources. Meanwhile, India`s large population and growing energy demands mean it still needs to build new coal-fired power plants to meet its energy needs.

Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted both countries` efforts to reduce their emissions. The economic slowdown caused by the pandemic has led to a temporary reduction in emissions, but it has also made it harder for governments to invest in renewable energy and other clean energy technologies.


The Paris Agreement represents a global effort to combat climate change and limit global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The role of China and India in this effort is crucial, given their status as two of the world`s largest emitters of greenhouse gases.

Both countries have made progress in reducing their emissions and promoting clean energy, but they still face significant challenges in meeting their climate targets. It will take sustained efforts from governments, businesses, and individuals to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement and ensure a sustainable future for the planet.